Human Health and Hygiene.



Q1. Define the following

  1. Personal Hygiene: - Personal hygiene may be defined as that branch of hygiene which concerns itself with the adjustments, which the individual must make to preserve and improve the health of his body and mind.
  2. Community hygiene: - Community hygiene may be defined as that branch of hygiene which concerns itself with the efforts, which the community must make for the preservation, maintenance and improvement of the health of the people.
  3. Health: - Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity.
  4. HSR: - HSR can be defined as the systematic study of the means by which biomedical and other relevant knowledge is brought to bear on the health of individuals and community under a given set of conditions.
  5. Hygiene: - Hygiene is defined as the science and art of preserving, maintaining and improving health with the help of factors contributing to healthful living.
  6. Health education: - Health education can be defined as a process that informs, motivates and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and life styles.
  7. Pollution: - Pollution can be defined as any undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristic of our environment that may adversely affect humans or other organisms.
  8. Population: - Population can be defined as a group of organisms of the same species occupying a particular space at a particular time.
  9. Demography: - The branch of population study dealing with quantitative aspects of human population is called demography.

Q2. Give scientific reasons.


1. Health is both biological and social phenomenon.
Ans.
  1. The studies in social sciences showed that health is not only a biomedical phenomenon but also the one which is influenced by social, psychological, cultural, economic and political factors of the people concern.
  2. Thus health is both biological and social phenomenon.

2. The biomedical concept of health was found to be inadequate.
Ans.
  1. Traditionally health has been viewed as an absence of disease.
  2. If one was free from disease then the person was considered healthy.
  3. However, this biomedical concept could not help to solve major problems of mankind such as malnutrition, accidents, drug abuse, mental illness, population explosion etc.
  4. Hence, the biomedical concept of health was found to be inadequate.

3. It seems that female literacy plays a key role in improving the health situation.
Ans.
  1. In the recent years a lot of improvement is seen in health situation.
  2. This is because more and more people especially females are getting educational and they take care of the health of the family.
  3. They are utilising the health facilities provided by the government at a high rate.
  4. Since there is a growth in female literacy and improvement in health situation, it seems that female literacy plays a key role in improving the health situation.

4. Primary health approach has been described as ‘Health by the people’ and ‘placing people’s health in people’s hand.
Ans.
  1. Primary heath care concept was an outcome of the international conference in Alma Ata, USSR.
  2. According to this concept scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology are made accessible to people in the community through their full participation.
  3. Hence, primary health has been described as ‘health by the people’ and ‘placing people’s health in people’s hands’.

5. Drinking alcohol should be avoided.
Ans.
  1. Excess of consumption of alcohol causes many toxic effects such as rapid heart beats, error in vision and hearing, loss of control of memory, self control, attention etc.
  2. Alcohol is also responsible for many crimes, accidents, mental injuries and many diseases.
  3. Hence, drinking alcohol should be avoided.

6. Rubbing the body with certain vegetable oil makes the person cheerful and refreshed.
Ans.
  1. Regular rubbing the body with certain vegetable oil makes the skin soft.
  2. It increases the circulation of blood and the muscles are exercised.
  3. This makes the person feel cheerful and refreshed.
  4. Thus rubbing the body with certain vegetable oil makes the person cheerful and refreshed.

7. Nails should be kept clean and cut – short periodically.
Ans.
  1. Dirt will lodge under long nails and may carry infection.
  2. Along with the food, the dirt and the germs enter into the stomach and may cause various diseases.
  3. Hence nails should be kept clean and cut short periodically.

8. Tight – fitting clothing should be avoided.
Ans.
  1. Tight fitting clothing interferes with the normal circulation of flood.
  2. It also affects respiration, digestion and the action of muscles.
  3. Hence tight fitting clothing should be avoided.

9. The pervious emphasis ‘health care for the people’ has been shifted to ‘health care by the people’.
Ans.
  1. According to the concept of community hygiene ther is more active involvement of families and communities in health matters such as planning, implementation, utilization, operation and evaluation of health services.
  2. Thus the previous emphasis ‘health care for the people’ has been shifted to ‘health care by the people’.

10. Person suffering from infectious disease should not carry on occupations.
Ans.
  1. A person suffering from infectious disease could transfer the pathogen from his own body into another individual’s body through various media.
  2. This could be dangerous and may lead to the spread of the disease.
  3. Hence a person suffering from infectious disease should not carry on occupation to stop the further spread of the disease.

Q3. Write short notes on the following.


1. Holistic concept of health: -
Ans.
  1. The holistic concept of health is s synthesis of biomedical, ecological and psychosocial concepts.
  2. It recognises the strength of social, economic political and environmental influences on health.
  3. According to holistic concept all sectors of society have an effect on health, in particular agriculture, animal husbandry, food, industry, education, housing, public works, communications and other sectors.

2. Necessity of health.
Ans.
  1. Health is essential for socio – economic development of the society.
  2. The economic development cannot solve the major problems of poverty such as hunger, diseases and malnutrition.
  3. These major problems can be solved by non economic measures such as education, productive employment, housing, equity, freedom, dignity, human welfare etc.
  4. Since health is an integral part of development, all sectors of society have an effect on health.
  5. The human health and the well – being are the ultimate goal of development.

3. Environmental pollution hazards.
Ans Environmental pollution may cause many health hazards as follows.
  1. The air pollutants like oxides of sulphur cause headache, coma, conjunctivitis, pneumonia etc.
  2. Nitrogen oxides causes lung diseases.
  3. The hydrocarbons are carcinogenic.
  4. Metals like Pb (lead), Cd, Hg, etc. cause anaemia, damage to RBCs, liver and kidney infection, fatigue, anxiety, hypertension, cancer etc.

4. Legislative measures to control pollution.
Ans.
  1. Man has made great progress in technical and industrial spheres.
  2. Use of fuels, fertilizers, agrochemicals and industrial wastes introduce many unwanted substances in the environment.
  3. The ecobalance gets disturbed by man’s activities and the environment gets polluted.
  4. For maintaining good health legislative measures to control pollution are as follows_
    1. Technological level
    2. Legal level and
    3. Social level.

5. Objectives of health education
Ans. The three main objectives of health education are as follows
  1. Informing people: - People should be informed about the scientific knowledge explaining the prevention of disease and promotion of health. The result will be creation of awareness of health needs and problems and also of responsibilities on part of the people.
  2. Motivating people: - The people must be motivated to change their habits and ways of living. Thus the people will try to change their habits which are hazardous to health such as pollution of water, outdoor defecation, indulgence in alcohol, cigarette smoking, drug addiction etc.
  3. Guiding into action: - Government has a major responsibility to provide the necessary infrastructure of health services. People need to be encouraged.

Q4. Answer the following questions.


1. What is community hygiene?
Ans.
  1. Community hygiene may be defined as that branch of hygiene which concerns itself with the efforts, which the community must make for the preservation, maintenance and improvement of the health of the people.
  2. According to the concept of community hygiene, there is more active involvement of families and communities in health matters such as planning, implementation, utilisation, operation and evaluation of health services.
  3. Thus the previous emphasis ‘health care for the people’ has been shifted to ‘health care by the people’.

2. Name the levels at which environmental pollution should be controlled.
Ans. For maintaining good health environmental pollution can be controlled at three levels: -
  1. Technological level.
  2. Legal level and
  3. Social level.

3. Why tobacco chewing should be avoided?
Ans.
  1. Tobacco chewing harms digestion and causes sore throat.
  2. It may also cause trembling of fingers, arteriosclerosis, hypertension etc.
  3. It may lead to oral cancer which can be very fatal.
  4. Hence tobacco chewing should be avoided.

4. Why human population should be controlled?
Ans.
  1. Now a days it is observed that the human population is increasing continuously.
  2. The over expanding human population creates a number of problems with reference to food supply, housing, health and standard of living.
  3. Thus the human population should be controlled.

5. What is the need of health services research?
Ans.
  1. The concept of Health Services Research (HSR) was developed during 1981 – 1982.
  2. HSR is essential for the continuous evolution and refinement of health services to improve the health of people.

6. Give he various primary health care measures.
Ans. The primary health care measures are
  1. Education about existing health problems and methods of preventing and controlling them.
  2. Promotion of food supply and proper nutrition.
  3. An adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation.
  4. Maternal and child health care, including family planning.
  5. Immunization against infectious diseases.
  6. Prevention and control of endemic diseases.
  7. Appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries.
  8. Provision of essential drugs.

7. Describe personal hygienic habits.
Ans. Hygienic habits cannot be learnt from books but they must be developed and practised in daily living. The various hygienic habits are
  1. It is a good habit to take a glass of cold water early in the morning on rising from the bed.
  2. There should be regularity in taking wholesome food which should be properly masticated and eaten slowly. It is a bad habit to overload the stomach.
  3. Drinking of alcohol should be avoided because it causes many toxic effects such as rapid heart beats, error in vision and hearing, loss of control of memory, self control etc. Alcohol is also responsible for many crimes.
  4. Tobacco chewing and smoking should be avoided as it harms digestion and causes sore throat, coughing, trembling of fingers, oral cancer and lung cancer, atherosclerosis, hypertension etc.
  5. Constipation should be avoided by drinking plenty of water in between meals, eating coarse bulky food such as green vegetables, fruits, whole grains cereals etc., going to the toilet regularly etc.
  6. Anger should be controlled by an exercise or a walk. Kill you anger before it kills you.
  7. Special emphasis should be laid on cleanliness with regard to the food we eat, the air we breathe and the water we drink.
  8. A regular bath should be taken early in the morning or in the middle of the day before taking meals.
  9. Hair should be kept thoroughly clean and should always be kept combed and dressed.
  10. Mouth should be well rinsed with some pleasant antiseptic mouth wash in the morning and at night after taking the last meals.
  11. Teeth should be cleaned at least twice a day that is in the morning and at night.
  12. Hands should be washed with soap before taking meals, during handling or preparing food and after going to the toilets.

8. Suggest the steps to control and prevent infectious diseases.
Ans. The following steps are suggested to control and prevent infectious diseases.
  1. To notify all infectious diseases to health authorities of the area. The responsibility of notifying such diseases should rest on the head of the family, near relations and medical practitioners.
  2. Articles which are liable to convey infectious diseases like bedding and clothing should not be exposed in public places.
  3. infected articles should not be sent to laundry or cleaners without first getting them satisfactorily disinfected.
  4. persons suffering from an infectious disease should not carry on occupations until he is free from infections. This may be dangerous to others and may lead to the spread of diseases.
  5. A child suffering from a communicable disease should be ordered by health authorities not to attend his school until he is free from infections.
  6. Dead bodies of infectious diseases cases should be promptly burned or buried so as not to infect others.
  7. The population under risk should be protected through immunization, chemoprophylaxis etc.

9. What is population? Give the measures for population control.
Ans. Population can be define as a group of organisms of the same species occupying in a particular space at a particular time. Population control measures are mainly of two types
  1. Direct measures and
  2. Indirect or Education measures.

  1. The direct measures includes the various birth control techniques.
    1. Sterilization (Vasectomy in men and tubectomy in women)
    2. Use of intra-uterine devices and birth control pills by women.
    3. Use of condoms by men etc.

  1. Educational measures include.
    1. Propaganda through the media about the advantages of small family.
    2. Awareness about the idea of birth control.
    3. Promotion of women’s education.
    4. Inclusion of population education in the syllabi in schools and colleges.