Diseases due to over intake of some nutrients.



Q1. Define

  1. Obesity: - It is an abnormal and dangerous condition in which a large surplus of fat is stored within the body.
  2. Hypertension: - Hypertension is defined as the level of blood pressure at which action is warranted.
  3. Hypertension in adults: - Hypertension in adults is defined as a systolic pressure equal to or greater than 160 mm Hg and / or diastolic pressure equal to or greater than 95 mm Hg.
  4. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) : - Coronary Heart Disease is defined as “impairment of heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the heart compared to its needs, caused by obstructive changes in the coronary circulation of heart.


Q2. Give scientific reasons.


1. Atherosclerosis is characterised by the deposition of cholesterol in the arterial walls.
Ans.
  1. Arthrosclerosis is a condition where the arteries become less elastic and narrower.
  2. The cholesterol level in the blood plasma increases due to excessive consumption of saturated fats.
  3. This leads to accumulation and deposition of cholesterol in the connective tissue of arterial walls.
  4. Hence, arteriosclerosis is characterized by the deposition of cholesterol in the arterial walls.

2. Smoking acts as a risk factor for CHD.
Ans.
  1. Tobacco smoke may cause carbon monoxide induced atherogenesis.
  2. It may result into rise in blood pressure by nicotine stimulation and myocardial oxygen demand.
  3. This may lead to the risk of death from Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD)
  4. Hence, smoking acts as a risk factor for CHD.

3. Hypervitaminosis does not occur in case of water soluble vitamins.
Ans.
  1. The symptoms shown by the excessive intake of particular vitamins are collectively called hypervitaminosis.
  2. B complex vitamins and Vitamin C are water soluble vitamins.
  3. When these water soluble vitamins are taken in excess, they are excreted through urine and not stored in the body.
  4. Hence, hypervitaminosis does not occur in case of water soluble vitamins.

4. Consumption of liver should be avoided in pregnancy.
Ans.
  1. High concentration of vitamin A is stored in liver.
  2. Vitamin A in large amounts may be toxic to adults as well as children.
  3. It may cause abnormalities in the development of foetus.
  4. Hence, consumption of liver should be avoided in pregnancy.

5. Excessive intake of calories should be avoided.
Ans.
  1. When calorie rich foods such as fats and carbohydrates are consumed in large proportion various health hazards occur in human beings.
  2. Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, renal and cardiovascular diseases, disorders of liver and gall bladder etc. are the major health hazards from overnutrition.
  3. This can be fatal for the health of the individual and may even lead to death.
  4. Hence, excessive intake of calories should be avoided.

6. Excessive intake of saturated fat in our diet should be avoided.
Ans.
  1. When the saturated fats are consumed in very large proportion, there occur various disorders such as arterio - sclerosis, hypertension and coronary attack.
  2. Atherosclerosis is characterised by the deposition of cholesterol and cholestoryl ester in the connective tissue of arterial walls.
  3. Such deposition of cholesterol occurs when the cholesterol level in the blood plasma increases due to excessive consumption of saturated fats.
  4. Hence, excessive intake of saturated fat in our diet should be avoided.

7. Excessive intake of fluorine should be avoided.
Ans.
  1. Fluorine is essential for normal mineralization of bones and formation of dental enamel.
  2. However excess ingestion causes dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis.
  3. Hence, Excessive intake of fluorine should be avoided.

8. Administration of large doses of vitamin A to infants and small children should be avoided.
Ans.
  1. Hypervitaminosis A may occur due to the administration of a large doses of vitamin A to infants and small children.
  2. Symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting drowsiness, loss of appetite, painful joints, liver enlargement, bleeding of lips and loss of hair.
  3. Hence, administration of large doses of vitamin A to infants and small children should be avoided.

9. We should avoid over intake of vitamin D.
Ans.
  1. Excess intake of vitamin D leads to hypervitaminosis, characterized by hyercalcemia, hyper phosphetomia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, thirst or drowsiness.
  2. Metastatic calcification may occur in kidneys, arteries, bronchi and other sites.
  3. The patient may lapse into coma, while cardiac arthythmias and renal failure may occur.
  4. Hence, we should avoid over intake of vitamin D.

10. Intake of common salt should be restricted.
Ans.
  1. Normal intake of common salt should be 5gm/per day.
  2. Excess consumption of common salt through food leads to rise in blood pressure called hypertension.
  3. It may further lead to Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
  4. Hence, intake of common salt should be restricted to avoid hypertension.


Q3. Write short notes on

1. Preventive measures of obesity.
Ans.
  1. Obesity is harder to treat in adults than it is in children.
  2. The control of obesity centres round weight reduction.
  3. The weight can be reduced by dietary changes, increased physical activity and combination of both.
  4. The proportion of energy – rich foods such as simple carbohydrates and fats in the diet should be reduced.
  5. The fibre content in the diet should be increased through the consumption of common unrefined foods.
  6. Regular physical exercises is the key to control obesity.
  7. Health education has and important role to play in teaching the people how to reduce overweight and prevent obesity.

2. Dental fluorosis.
Ans.
  1. It is the condition in which only the teeth of young children are affected by excessive intake of fluorine.
  2. An early sign of dental fluorosis is the ‘mottled enamel’.
  3. In this condition the teeth lose their shiny appearance and chalk white patches develop on them.
  4. Mottling is best seen on the incisors of the upper jaw.
  5. It is almost entirely confined to the permanent teeth and develops only during their period of formation.

3. Preventive measures of diabetes.
Ans. The preventive and control measures of diabetes are as follows.
  1. The normal body weight should be maintained through adoption of healthy nutritional habits and physical exercise. The nutritional habits include and adequate protein intake, a high intake of dietary fibre and avoidance of sweet foods.
  2. Since alcohol can indirectly increase the risk of diabetes, it should be avoided.
  3. Diabetes is a major cause of disability through its complications e.g. blindness, kidney failure, coronary thrombosis, gangrene of the lower extremities etc. These complications can be prevented by proper management of the diabetic through periodical routine checking of blood sugar, or urine for proteins and ketones, of blood pressure, visual acuity and weight.
  4. The feet should be examined for any defective blood circulation, loss of sensation and health of the skin.

4. Hypertension.
Ans.
  1. It is the condition which may occur genetically or may cause due to obesity, stress, diabetes, renal disease etc.
  2. In hypertension, there occurs increase in the level of blood pressure.
  3. Hypertension is divided into primary (essential) and secondary. It is classified as ‘essential’ when its causes are generally unknown. While the hypertension which is caused due to other disease process or abnormality, is classified as ‘secondary’.
  4. The risk factors of essential hypertension are age, genetic factors, obesity, salt intake, saturated fat, alcohol, physical activity, environmental stress etc.
  5. Blood pressure rises with age in both sexes.

5. Hypervitaminosis of vitamin D.
Ans.
  1. Excess intake of vitamin D leads of hypervitaminosis characterized by high blood calcium concentration (Hypercalcemia), hyperphosphotemia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea.
  2. Metastatic calcification may occur in kidneys, arteries, bronchi and other sites.
  3. Vitamin D is stored in the body in fatty tissues and in the liver.
  4. Its excessive intake may also cause anorexia, thirst and drowsiness.
  5. The patient may lapse into coma, while cardiac arthythmias and renal failure may occur.

Q4. Answer in 2 to 3 sentences.


1. What is obesity? Give its risk factors.
Ans.
  1. It is an abnormal and dangerous condition in which a large surplus of fat is stored within the body.
  2. This is due to an enlargement of fat cell size (hypertrophic obesity) or an increase in fat cell number (hyperplastic obesity) or a combination of both.
  3. Obesity acts as a positive risk factor in developing the conditions like hypertension, diabetes, gall bladder disease and coronary heart disease.
  4. Hypertension and coronary Heart Disease caused due to obesity may lead to mortality.
  5. There are also excess numbers of deaths from renal diseases. In short, obesity lowers the life expectancy.

2. What is skeletal fluorosis? Give its causes and symptoms.
Ans.
  1. It is the condition which occurs in older people affecting their bones, tendons and ligaments.
  2. Excessive ingestion of fluorine causes skeletal fluorosis.
  3. Pain and stiffness of the back, of the joints of both limbs and limitation of neck movements are the symptoms of skeletal fluorosis.

3. Give the main symptoms of hypervitaminosis of vitamin A.
Ans. The main symptoms of hypervitaminosis of vitamin A are as follows.
  1. Headache, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, loss of appetite, painful joints, liver enlargement, bleeding of lips and loss of hair.
  2. Preformed vitamin A in large amounts may be toxic to adults as well as children.

4. Give the disadvantages of excessive nutrient intake and mention its controlling measures.
Ans.
  1. Excessive consumption of food (nutrients) is simply wastage. There is no advantage or gain of excess food to the consumer.
  2. The food taken by the consumer in excess cause’s disorders or diseases to him.
  3. The control measures of excessive intake of nutrients are as follows.
      1. Nutrition counselling should be done so that the people will select the adequate amount of proper food.
      2. One should consume food quantitatively and qualitatively as per ones requirements, based on age, sex and occupation.
      3. For this purpose one should consult nutritionist or otherwise the corresponding chart from books on health should be referred.
      4. The balance between food intake and requirement must be adequately met with.

5. Describe the risk factors of CHD and give the preventive measures.
Ans.
  1. The principle risk factors of CHD are cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, stress, sedentary habits etc.
  2. The preventive measure for CHD are as follows.
      1. Dietary changes such as reduction of fat intake, limited consumption of saturated fat, and increase in the consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes, reduction of salt intake, avoidance of alcohol consumption etc.
      2. Stoppage of smoking.
      3. Regular physical activity and weight control.

6. What is hypertension? Give its causative factors and preventive measures.
Ans.
  1. It is the condition which may occur genetically or be caused due to obesity, stress, diabetes, renal disease.
  2. In hypertension, there occurs increase in the level of blood pressure.
  3. Hypertension is divided into primary (essential) and secondary. It is classified as ‘essential’ when its causes are generally unknown. While the hypertension which is caused due to other disease, process or abnormality, is classified as ‘secondary’.
  4. The risk factors of essential hypertension are age, genetic factors, obesity, salt intake, saturated fat, alcohol, physical activity, environmental stress etc.
  5. Blood pressure rises with age in both sexes.
  6. The prevention of hypertension can be achieved by
      1. Dietary changes such as reduction of salt intake (normal intake 5gm/ per day), moderate fat intake, avoidance of alcohol intake etc.
      2. Weight reduction,
      3. Regular physical activity.
      4. Reduction of stress and smoking, yoga and meditation.
      5. Health education and self care.

7. Write an account on obesity
Ans.
  1. It is an abnormal and dangerous condition in which a large surplus of fat is stored within the body.
  2. This is due to an enlargement of fat cell size (hypertrophic obesity), or an increase in fat cell number (hyperplastic obesity) or a combination of both.
  3. Obesity is often expressed in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI)
  4. The state of obesity is characterised by an increase in the fatty mass at the expense of the other parts of the body.
  5. The water content of the body is never increased in case of obesity.
  6. Obesity acts as a positive risk factor in developing the conditions like hypertension, diabetes, gall bladder diseases and coronary heart disease.
  7. Hypertension and coronary heart disease caused due to obesity may lead to mortality.
  8. There are also deaths from renal diseases.
  9. Obesity lowers the life expectancy.
  10. Health education has an important role to play in teaching the people how to reduce overweight and prevent obesity.