MERITS OF ARITHEMETIC MEAN
The median is that value of the series which divides the group into two equal parts, one part comprising all values greater than the median value and the other part comprising all the values smaller than the median value.
Merits of median
(1) Simplicity:- It is very simple measure of the central tendency of the series. I the case of simple statistical series, just a glance at the data is enough to locate the median value.
(2) Free from the effect of extreme values: - Unlike arithmetic mean, median value is not destroyed by the extreme values of the series.
(3) Certainty: - Certainty is another merits is the median. Median values are always a certain specific value in the series.
(4) Real value: - Median value is real value and is a better representative value of the series compared to arithmetic mean average, the value of which may not exist in the series at all.
(5) Graphic presentation: - Besides algebraic approach, the median value can be estimated also through the graphic presentation of data.
(6) Possible even when data is incomplete: - Median can be estimated even in the case of certain incomplete series. It is enough if one knows the number of items and the middle item of the series.
Demerits of median:
Following are the various demerits of median:
(1) Lack of representative character: - Median fails to be a representative measure in case of such series the different values of which are wide apart from each other. Also, median is of limited representative character as it is not based on all the items in the series.
(2) Unrealistic:- When the median is located somewhere between the two middle values, it remains only an approximate measure, not a precise value.
(3) Lack of algebraic treatment: - Arithmetic mean is capable of further algebraic treatment, but median is not. For example, multiplying the median with the number of items in the series will not give us the sum total of the values of the series.
However, median is quite a simple method finding an average of a series. It is quite a commonly used measure in the case of such series which are related to qualitative observation as and health of the student.
The value of the variable which occurs most frequently in a distribution is called the mode.
Merits of mode:
Following are the various merits of mode:
(1) Simple and popular: - Mode is very simple measure of central tendency. Sometimes, just at the series is enough to locate the model value. Because of its simplicity, it s a very popular measure of the central tendency.
(2) Less effect of marginal values: - Compared top mean, mode is less affected by marginal values in the series. Mode is determined only by the value with highest frequencies.
(3) Graphic presentation:- Mode can be located graphically, with the help of histogram.
(4) Best representative: - Mode is that value which occurs most frequently in the series. Accordingly, mode is the best representative value of the series.
(5) No need of knowing all the items or frequencies: - The calculation of mode does not require knowledge of all the items and frequencies of a distribution. In simple series, it is enough if one knows the items with highest frequencies in the distribution.
Demerits of mode:
Following are the various demerits of mode:
(1) Uncertain and vague: - Mode is an uncertain and vague measure of the central tendency.
(2) Not capable of algebraic treatment: - Unlike mean, mode is not capable of further algebraic treatment.
(3) Difficult: - With frequencies of all items are identical, it is difficult to identify the modal value.
(4) Complex procedure of grouping:- Calculation of mode involves cumbersome procedure of grouping the data. If the extent of grouping changes there will be a change in the model value.
(5) Ignores extreme marginal frequencies:- It ignores extreme marginal frequencies. To that extent model value is not a representative value of all the items in a series. Besides, one can question the representative character of the model value as its calculation does not involve all items of the series.
TO FIND MEAN
3. The measurements (in mm) of the diameters of the head of screws are given below: Calculate mean diameter of head of a screw of 'Assumed Mean Method'.
4. Below is given frequency distribution of marks (out of 100) obtained by the students. Calculate mean marks scored by a student by 'Assumed Mean Method'.
5. Following table gives frequency distribution of milk (in litres) given per week by 50 cows. Find average (mean) amount of milk given by a cow by 'Shift of Origin Method.'
6. Following table given frequency distribution of trees planted by different housing societies in a particular locality. Find the number of trees planted by housing society by using 'step deviation method'.
7. Following table gives age distribution of people suffering from 'Asthma due to air pollution in certain city. Find mean by 'Step Deviation method'.
8. The measurements (in mm) of the diameters of the head of screws are given below: Find mean by 'Step deviation method'.
9. Solve by 'Assumed Mean method. Following table gives frequency distribution of trees planted by different housing societies in a particular locality;. Find Mean.
10. Solve by 'Step Deviation Method. Below is the frequency distribution of marks (out of 100) obtained by the students. Find mean.
TO FIND MEDIAN
3. Following table shows distribution of monthly expenditure (in Rs.) done by households in a certain village on electricity: Find median expenditure done by a household on electricity per month.
4. The following table shows ages of 300 patients getting medical treatment in a hospital on a particular day. Find median age of a patient.
TO FIND MODE
1. The weight of coffee (in gms) in 70 packets is given below: Determine the modal weight of coffee in a packet.